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Towards a Global Norm of Beneficial Ownership Transparency

A scoping study on a strategic approach to achieving a global norm

Beneficial ownership transparency (BOT) is emerging as a new norm.


Towards a Global Norm of Beneficial Ownership Transparency

Consider the question:

“What action is required to achieve a global norm of beneficial ownership transparency?”

Anonymously owned companies facilitate grand corruption and laundering of the proceeds of corruption. They can also enable other harmful flows including tax evasion, organised crime and terrorist financing.

These flows, and the corporate and other structures which facilitate them, are international, operating across borders, therefore policy makers are recognising that the action required to address them similarly requires a global effort, to manage the risk that illicit flows are simply diverted



  • Executive summary
  • Mapping of international and national architecture
  • Benefits and impact of BOT
  • Assessment of what is needed to set up an open publicly accessible BOT register
  • Demand for technical support and the assistance currently available
  • Future approaches to harnessing national and international action to establish a global norm
  • Assessment of additional technical support needs and recommendations for future approaches
  • Next steps
  • Appendices

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